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Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre, Cairo.
  • 2 Department of Medical Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Cairo.
  • PMID: 26417227
  • PMCID: PMC4552130

Free PMC article

Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs

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Authors

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre, Cairo.
  • 2 Department of Medical Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Cairo.
  • PMID: 26417227
  • PMCID: PMC4552130

Abstract

Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose availability as well as alterations in brain monoamine neurotransmitter levels. Piracetam is more effective in ameliorating the cognitive impairments than other nootropics by alleviating the alterations in glucose, nitric oxide and dopamine in brain.

Keywords: Cannabis sativa extract; brain monoamines; mice; nootropics, water maze; oxidative stress.

Figures

Table 1. Effect of cannabis extract, scopolamine…

Table 1. Effect of cannabis extract, scopolamine or cannabis + scopolamine on brain monoamines

Table 2. Effect of cannabis extract given…

Table 2. Effect of cannabis extract given with donepezil, piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba on…

Figure 1. Effect of cannabis extract on…

Figure 1. Effect of cannabis extract on the latency to find hidden platform in the…

Figure 2. Effect of cannabis extract combined…

Figure 2. Effect of cannabis extract combined with donepezil, piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba on…

Figure 3. The average mean latency to…

Figure 3. The average mean latency to locate a submerged platform in the MWM test…

Figure 4. The average mean latency of…

Figure 4. The average mean latency of first (A); second (B) and third (C) trial…

Figure 5. The average mean latency (in…

Figure 5. The average mean latency (in seconds) ± SEM of first (A); second (B)…

Figure 6. Effect of cannabis extract on…

Figure 6. Effect of cannabis extract on the latency to find hidden platform in the…

Figure 7. The average mean latency to…

Figure 7. The average mean latency to locate a submerged platform in the MWM test…

Figure 8. Effect of cannabis extract alone…

Figure 8. Effect of cannabis extract alone or in combination with piracetam, vinpocetine, Ginkgo biloba…

Figure 9. Effects of cannabis extract alone,…

Figure 9. Effects of cannabis extract alone, cannabis + memory enhancing drugs or cannabis +…

Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drug …

Effects Of Taking Racetams With Cannabis

Cannabis or marijuana usage is becoming more acceptable within the US and across the world. More people are appreciating the numerous benefits of smoking cannabis. Currently, there are no existing scientific studies showing the effects of mixing racetams with cannabis. However, there are numerous reports by people who use these together on social media, discussion forums and message boards. The outcome is generally positive as most users report getting more relaxed, focused and less forgetful.

Effects Of Taking Racetams With Cannabis Cannabis or marijuana usage is becoming more acceptable within the US and across the world. More people are appreciating the numerous benefits of smoking