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The Importance of Cannabis Roots: Medical Potential, History, and Current Uses

Most growers give little thought to the roots of cannabis plants beyond ensuring that they’re healthy and supplied with water, nutrients, oxygen and drainage—before discarding them at harvest time. But the roots have been used in folk medicine for millennia, and contain several compounds that may be of medicinal value.

To get to the roots of it, let’s first investigate how these roots have been used in the past:

Use of cannabis roots as medicine through history

Cannabis roots have a long-documented history of being used for medicinal purposes. The oft-cited Chinese herbal Shennong pên Ts’ao ching, dated to around 2700 BCE, mentions that cannabis root was dried and ground to form the basis of a paste used to reduce pain caused by broken bones or surgery.

It was also crushed to extract the fresh juice, or boiled to make a decoction, and in this manner used in many ways, including:

  • As a diuretic
  • As an anti-haemorrhagic to stop post-partum bleeding in childbirth (as well as other forms of bleeding)
  • To ease difficult childbirth
  • To reduce pain and swelling from bruises and scrapes

The Roman historian Pliny the Elder wrote in his Naturalis Historia in around 79 CE that cannabis root could be boiled in water to make a preparation that relieved joint cramps, gout and acute pain. He also stated that the raw root could be applied directly to burns to reduce pain and blistering, but must be changed frequently to prevent drying-out.

The Roman physician Dioscorides also attested to the use of boiled cannabis root poultices to treat inflammation, gout and ‘twisted sinews’. The Greek medical writer Oribasius wrote that the ‘dry’ root could also be applied to eruptions of the skin such as subcutaneous cysts, when mixed in equal quantities with pigeon droppings—although no other source apparently makes this claim.

The English physician, William Salmon wrote in the early 18th century that hemp root could be mixed with barley flower and applied as a poultice to treat sciatica and hip joint pain. From the late 18th century up to the turn of the 20th century, American physicians would recommend decoctions of hemp root and seeds to treat inflammation, incontinence and venereal disease.

Modern-day use of cannabis roots

Traditional use of cannabis root is known to have persisted up to at least the 1960s in Argentina, where it was used to reduce fever, dysentery, and gastric complaints and to improve overall health and well-being. There’s also a hemp-root tea known as ma cha that is still consumed in Korea, although it’s not exactly clear what its medicinal benefits are supposed to be.

Many modern-day growers, as well as dispensaries and patients in the USA, utilise preparations made from cannabis root to provide subjective relief from a range of ailments. Some home-brew cannabis root ‘tea’, usually by slowly simmering the dried, powdered root (often with cinnamon bark, anise, or other aromatics) in a crock pot for twelve hours or more before straining and drinking.

If it’s put back on to boil after straining, it can also be reduced down to a gummy, tarry extract to form the basis of tinctures or liniments. Others will simmer the root in oil and water, before separating out the residual oil from the water and plant matter and using as the basis for topical medications.

Some even use the root in its dry, powdered form to make dry poultices that can help to soothe and heal burns, cuts and skin complaints such as dermatitis. There’s even one report of dried, powdered root being used to ‘draw out’ the venom from a scorpion sting—this may have some validity, as fresh cannabis juice was apparently used for this purpose in ancient China.

Today, some dispensaries also reportedly stock preparations made from hemp and cannabis root, that can be found in body lotions, salves, lip balms, massage oils and many other products.

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Cannabinoids in the roots

There is evidence to suggest that cannabis roots contain some trace quantity of cannabinoids (particularly CBD), and that the concentration depends on the strain, as well as being affected to some extent by environmental factors. Apparently on this basis, there are now various outlets in the USA selling powdered, ‘activated’ cannabis root ostensibly for its high CBD concentrations. However, it appears that the concentration of CBD in cannabis root is very low, and it’s doubtful that it would have any medical efficacy at such levels.

A Canadian study published in 2012 analysed Finola hemp and found that the flowers contained CBDA (the acidic precursor to CBD) at an approximately 2.4% concentration, while the leaves, stems and roots contained 0.5%, 0.04% and 0.004% respectively. The parts also contained the precursor to CBDA, a substance known as hexanoyl-CoA, in concentrations of 15.5%, 4.0%, 2.2% and 1.5% respectively. Studies into high-THC varieties are apparently not available, but it’s likely that the roots would also exhibit much lower concentrations than the flowers and leaves.

Other substances of medical interest in cannabis roots

Although the roots are primarily composed of sugars and lipids, low levels of terpenes, alkaloids and various other compounds have been isolated. In 1971, it was determined that ethanol extract of hemp roots contained the terpenes friedelin, pentacyclic triterpene ketones, and epifriedelanol.

Friedelin is thought to have hepatoprotective (liver-protecting) and antioxidant effects, epifriedelanol has been demonstrated to have antitumour effects, and several pentacyclic triterpene ketones are thought to cause apoptosis in cancer cells, as well as reduce inflammation, pain and bacterial infection and possess diuretic and immunomodulatory properties.

Several alkaloids that may be of medicinal value have been identified in cannabis roots, as well. The alkaloids piperidine and pyrrolidine have both been found in the roots, as well as in the stems, seeds, pollen and leaves. These alkaloids can be highly toxic in high doses, but in smaller doses have been found to have various medical benefits.

Piperidine is used as a chemical ‘building block’ for various pharmaceuticals, particularly those involved in psychiatric medicine such as paroxetine and haloperidol. Pyrrolidine is also used as a building block for a class of stimulant drugs known as racetams.

The roots of cannabis have also been noted to contain choline and atropine in small quantities. Choline is an essential dietary nutrient that is the precursor to the predominant neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and is thought to be crucial to the maintenance of healthy cell membranes.

It’s thought that postmenopausal women are extremely likely to be deficient in choline, meaning that hemp-root tea consumed orally could provide important benefits. Atropine is well-known as a means to dilate the pupil and relax the eye muscles. It also has bronchodilatory properties, and is used to increase heart rate during medical resuscitation.

Cannabis roots and sex determination

It appears that cannabis roots grow differently according to their gender, and that a complex set of genetic interactions determines them both. A study into hemp varieties in Russia seems to clearly demonstrate this. It showed young cannabis plants would develop into male plants 80-90% of the time if they:

  • Were cut off above the root
  • Were processed as cuttings and kept in an aerated nutrient solution
  • Had all new roots cut off as soon as they appeared

However, if roots were allowed to regenerate then 80-90% would develop as females.

The researchers also treated the de-rooted cuttings with 6-benzylaminopurine, a synthetic cytokinin (plant hormones that facilitate cytokinesis, or cell division) that is known to be involved in cell division and differentiation, as well as overall growth and development. Treated cuttings developed in 80% female plants. This strongly suggests that cytokinin production in the roots plays a strong role in sex determination in cannabis.

Making sure your roots are healthy

If cultivating with the intention of using the roots, hydroponic and aeroponic techniques are preferable as they allow for a finer degree of precision when administering nutrients, enable the grower to regularly inspect for progress and signs of ill-health, and ensure that the roots will be clean and free from soil.

Plant breeders have developed specialised systems to maximise root health and growth; the best-known technique involves integrated air-pruning of roots to encourage dense growth within a specified volume.

Air-pruning of roots refers to the natural die-off of roots when exposed to low humidity and air. There are many pots and trays designed with perforated sides available, which helps this to occur naturally.

As the roots die off, the plant continually regenerates new roots, and the root ball itself becomes thick and dense. It’s preferable to air-prune rather than allow roots to hit the sides of pots and then continue to grow around the container, as this leads to twisted, strangulated roots that exhibit reduced nutrient uptake. As well as ensuring the good health of the roots themselves, air-pruning also improves the plant’s overall health and eventual yield.

Keeping roots fed with a mister or dripper system is generally advisable. Some growers will switch the pumps on 2-8 times per day (with increasing frequency as the root mass increases in size), allowing the medium to dry out slightly between feeds.

During the vegetative period, which of course is the period which undergoes the most extensive root growth, the roots should be directly supplied with light vegetative-stage nutrient solution and root boosting solution. Ensure that adequate airflow is provided to the outside of the pots or trays, so the roots will be exposed to the maximum fresh air and will dry out rapidly—it’s also a good idea to direct a fan (or multiple fans!) towards the roots to boost airflow.

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What to do with cannabis roots, and how to clean them

Now, with plenty of healthy roots to work with, they should be cleaned before using them for anything. Carefully remove the roots from the soil, keeping as much of it intact as possible. This is best done when the soil is still moist, as dry soil will try to cling to the roots even more.

Gently knock the roots on the ground or the side of the pot to try to let most of the soil fall off. Then cut the roots from the plant stalk (leaving a little wiggle room to work with) and remove any leaves.

Using water, rinse the roots well until (hopefully) no soil at all remains (especially if there are plans to consume them in any way). This may take a while. Don’t use hot water. Room temperature water is best, but if needed, lukewarm water can be used too. A soft toothbrush may help.

How to make your own cannabis root balm

At this point, there several things that can be done with the roots, all with their own benefits. With a little effort and perseverance, and some trial and error, it’s even possible to select a variety of strains to be used alone or in combination, to make balms and salves with a range of potency and potential uses.

Typically, the roots of cannabis are dried prior to being processed into balm. Then, the dried root mass is broken up into small chunks, or ground into powder with a pestle and mortar or a blender.

Once the dried root is broken down into a rough powder, it’s added to a slow cooker along with oil and water and gently heated for up to 12 hours, allowing the volatile compounds (including terpenoids and potentially even cannabinoids) to dissolve in the oil. The addition of water prevents the mixture from drying out and the oil from ‘frying’ the roots; the mixture should be checked every hour or so and fresh water added if necessary.

Once the heating stage is complete, the liquid is strained off and the residual root pulp is separated out and either discarded or frozen (to be processed a second time if deemed necessary). The liquid is placed in a freezer, and after some time the water will freeze while the volatile oils rise to the surface and can be scraped cleanly off. At this temperature, the oils will usually have a semi-solid, waxy consistency. At room temperature though, they will be much more liquid, and should have a smooth, translucent appearance.

Once the oil has been separated from the ice, it can be reheated and beeswax can be added to achieve a less runny, more spreadable consistency at room temperature. Trial and error is the best way to establish the desired consistency.

At this time, aromatic essential oils can be added to the mixture to improve fragrance and possibly even enhance medicinal properties.

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Potential risks of using cannabis roots

While cannabis roots no doubt possess various useful and important medicinal properties, it’s important to note that in high doses it can cause hepatotoxicity, due to the presence of the alkaloids pyrrolidine and piperidine. It’s also reported that the alkaloid content can irritate the stomach lining; thus, oral consumption of hemp-root tea is potentially riskier than topical application.

Pyrrolidine and piperidine can also act as irritants of the skin, mucous membranes and lungs. It’s unlikely that the compounds are present in high enough concentrations to present serious risk, but care should be taken to avoid prolonged or heavy use.

Certainly, hemp root extract should not be consumed in its undiluted, extract form. As a tea, light to moderate long-term usage should not present any serious risk, and as a topical, any reaction should present itself rapidly and use can be discontinued with no known long-term ill effects.

Our knowledge of the properties of cannabis root is still in its infancy, and as the industry continues to develop, it is likely that even more uses for them will be discovered.

Yes, cannabis has many potential medical benefits, but don’t forget about the roots! Here’s what you can do with cannabis roots & what they can do for you.

Cannabis Roots: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Science

It has long been known that resinous cannabis flower tops are well endowed with medicinal components. But that’s not the only part of the plant that has been used for therapeutic purposes. Cannabis roots have also provided relief for various ailments in traditional cultures.

The first mention of the curative qualities of cannabis roots dates back to 77 AD , as described in the Natural Histories by Latin naturalist Pliny the Elder. 1 Since then, cannabis roots have been utilized by herbalists and physicians not only in Europe, but in many regions stretching from China to Argentina. Hemp roots were valued for treating a wide range of conditions, including fever, infections, gout, arthritis, joint pain, and even postpartum haemorrhage. 2

Scientists are just beginning to recognize the healing properties of cannabis roots, which have largely been ignored both in research and in modern medical practice. The roots don’t contain aromatic essential oils and cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD , which are concentrated in the plant’s tiny glandular trichomes on the flower buds. Instead, the roots are imbued with other compounds that may have significant therapeutic applications. 3

In this article, we examine where the latest science and the historical evidence are starting to merge.

Inflammation

Cannabis roots are rich in triterpenoids such as friedelin and its derivate epifriedelinol. Both compounds are abundant in nature and are known to have significant anti-inflammatory activity. 4 5 6 7

Friedelin is found in many plants, such as citrus and rhododendron, as well as in algae, lichen, coal, and mineral wax. Friedelin is also present in cork and the bark of oak trees. 8 9 Along with several other compounds in the roots of cannabis, friedelin has shown potent anti-inflammatory activity in in vivo experiments, reducing edema and swelling in any area of the body tested. 10

As a treatment for inflammation cannabis root has historically been administered as a topical preparation.

In order to target overactive inflammation, cannabis root historically has been administered as a topical preparation — following a boiled water extraction or decoction. This method of extraction involves boiling herb or plant material and dissolving the chemical components to make a tincture, poultice or tea. Decoction is the name for the resulting liquid, which can be applied to the skin or consumed internally.

There are several reports of the use of cannabis roots as a treatment for inflammation. The earliest dates back to the 17th century in Culpeper’s Compleat Herbal by English physician and herbalist Nicholas Culpeper. 11 In 1640, another English botanist, John Parkinson, described hemp as “cold and dry” and he recommended “a decoction of the root to cool inflammation of the head or any other part.” 12

This cooling, anti-inflammatory property was confirmed by Dr. William Salomon in his personal notes (1710) and by Dr. Robert James in the book Pharmacopoeia Universalis (1747), and later by Husain Khan, who wrote in an 18th century Persian medical text: “A poultice of the boiled root and leaves is used for inflammations, and cure of neuralgic pains.” 13 14

Pain & Skin Burns

At a lower concentration, the roots of cannabis contain monoterpenes, such as carvone and dihydrocarvone, which mainly show analgesic effects. 15 Carvone and dihydrocarvone are the monoterpenes that give spearmint its distinct aroma and modulate the TRPM8 ionotropic receptor, which is sensitive to cooling and pain. 16 Carvone’s antinociceptive activity has been confirmed by several in vivo tests, and that is why spearmint essential oil, which contains up to 70% of carvone, is currently under investigation as a treatment for ostheoarthritis. 17

Other compounds identified in cannabis roots include sterols like B-sitosterol and campesterol and P-hydroxy-trans-cinnamamide, which was tested in vivo and also showed significant analgesic activity. 18

Pounding the raw root into a juice and mixing it with fat results in a preparation that has been used topically to soothe skin burns.

Historical accounts indicate that cannabis roots have been administered topically to treat gout and arthritis — usually by extracting the compounds from the root in boiling water. During the Renaissance, the French physician Francois Rabelais noted that “the root of hemp, boiled in water, soothes muscles, stiff joints, gout pains and rheumatism.” 19 In the early 18th century, the English physician William Salmon wrote that “the decoction of the hemp root eases the pains of the gout, helps hard tumours or knots of the joints, cramps, shrinking of the sinews, and [eases] sciatic pain in the hip. The application must be re-applied every day.” 20

Cannabis preparations, made by pounding the raw root into a juice and mixing it with fat, have been used topically to soothe skin burns. In 1542, the German physician Leonard Fuchs wrote of hemp: “the raw root, pounded and wrapped, is good for the burn.” 21

In 1640, Parkinson described the qualities of hemp as “cold and dry” and, in addition to recommending it for inflammation, noted that “the decoction of the root and the fresh juice mixed with oil or butter [is] good for any place that had been burnt by fire.” And in 1758, the French author Mercandier wrote about hemp in Traitè du Chanvre, indicating that the root ‘‘pounded and ground fresh, with butter in a mortar, one applies it to burns, which it soothes infinitely, provided it is often renewed.” 22

Fever

As above previously, cannabis roots contain a high concentration of friedelin, an anti-inflammatory compound, which also has been researched for its antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties. When tested on animals, friedelin caused a significant reduction of internal body temperature comparable to the effects of paracetamol, a commonly used antipyretic drug.

In the Canon of Medicine, the 12th century medical encyclopedia written by the Persian philosopher Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in Latin), the antipyretic properties of cannabis roots are discussed. Ibn Sina observes that “the compress with the boiled roots of cannabis decreases fever.” 23

In Argentina, hemp roots have been used both topically and orally for treating fever. 24

Childbirth & Postpartum Care

It appears that friedelin may also have estrogenic activity. Experiments have shown that administering 75 to 100 mg/kg of friedelin to female rats (with their ovaries removed) improved sexual behavior parameters and the estrogenic activity of the animals. 25

Friedelin is one of the main compounds present in Cissus quadrangularis, an edible plant commonly found in India, Sri Lanka, Java and West Africa. This plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine as an aphrodisiac.

Maytenus ilicifoli, widely known throughout South America as Espinheira santa, also contains friedelin and is a well-known herbal remedy for stimulating menstruation and for balancing estrogen during menopause. Traditionally brewed in a tea, the leaves of this healing herb botanical are also valued for their anticancer properties in Brazil, where friedelin-infused ointments are applied topically for symptomatic relief. 26

To assist with difficult childbirth, cannabis root is administered orally, either as juice or a decoction.

A scientific anaylsis of friedelin extracted from the bark of Mesua daphnifolia, a ubiquitous tree in Malaysia, showed cytotoxic activity against various women-specific malignancies, including breast cancer, cervical carcinoma and ovarian cancer cell lines. 27

Cannabis roots also contain lignans. Molecules that belong to the lignan class include several unique cannabisin compounds (of the types A-, B-, C-, D-, E-, F-, and G), which don’t exist anywhere else in the botanical world. Lignans, in general, are noteworthy antioxidants that promote health by acting through antiviral, antidiabetic, antitumoral, and anti-obesity channels. The structural similarity of lignans and mammalian estrogens underscore the potential efficacy of this class of compounds for combating some hormone-dependent cancers and for breast cancer prevention. 28

Practitioners of Chinese medicine have utilized preparations from cannabis roots to aid women during and after pregnancy. To assist with difficult childbirth, cannabis root is administered orally, either as juice or a decoction. 29

In the ancient Chinese pharmacopeia (Pên-ts’ao Ching), there are references to the therapeutic use of hemp roots for obstetric issues: ‘‘The juice of the root is thought to have a beneficial action in retained placenta and postpartum hemorrhage.’’ 30 Other accounts from China report that the root of the hemp plant “dispels stasis and stanches bleeding. It is used in the treatment of flooding and spotting, vaginal discharge, difficult delivery and retention of the placenta. It is taken orally, either as a decoction or crushed to extract its juice (in its fresh form).”

Methods of Administration

To review — there are various traditional methods of preparing cannabis root for therapeutic use. The main route of administration has been via topical application. Fresh ground up root, juice, or cannabis root decoction were mixed with fat (oil or butter) for topical applications of cannabis root-based preparations.

  • Topically: Raw cannabis root can be applied directly after pounding and crushing the fresh root to extract its juices. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, there are also many references to using cannabis root preparations with dried material. One account refers to mixing pulverised cannabis root with wine.
  • Orally: To assist with difficult childbirth, cannabis root was administered orally, either as juice or decoction. As a remedy for infection, raw cannabis root has been administered topically, orally, and even rectally to treat animals.

Roots Action

The biological activity of cannabis roots hasn’t been studied clinically, and most of our current scientific understanding comes from preclinical research involving the same molecules found in cannabis roots and in other plants. In addition, cannabis roots contain small quantities of alkaloids — mainly cannabisativine and anhydrocannabisativine — that are exclusive to cannabis, but these have yet to be the focus of any basic research. Within cannabis roots, there are also residues of atropine and nerine, as well as choline, which isn’t an alkaloid but is very important for the formation of acetylcholine, lipid bilayers, and cellular signalling. 31 32

Final thought: Cannabis roots can draw heavy metals from the soil, including iron, chromium, and cadmium. 33 This bioaccumulative quality makes cannabis a great tool for phytoremediation (restoring the soil), but it undermines the therapeutic use of cannabis unless the source of the medicine is carefully considered. Contaminated soil can produce toxic roots and harmful plants, which should be scrupulously avoided.

Viola Brugnatelli, a Project CBD contributing writer, is editor of the online journal Nature Going Smart and a lecturer on cannabis therapeutics at the University of Padua, Italy.

Copyright, Project CBD . May not be reprinted without permission.

It has long been known that resinous cannabis flower tops are well endowed with medicinal components. But that’s not the only part of the plant that has been used for therapeutic purposes. Cannabis roots have also provided relief for various ailments in traditional cultures.