Cannabis may be linked to strokes and heart rhythm disturbances in young people
- Young people who reported using cannabis frequently had higher risk of having a stroke, according to a Virginia study.
- The risk of being hospitalized for arrhythmia was significantly greater among people diagnosed with cannabis use disorder, according to an Oklahoma study.
Embargoed until 4 a.m. CT/5 a.m. ET Monday, Nov. 11, 2019
DALLAS, Nov. 11, 2019 — Frequent cannabis (marijuana) use among young people was linked to an increased risk of stroke and people diagnosed with cannabis use disorder were more likely to be hospitalized for heart rhythm disturbances (arrhythmias), according to two new preliminary studies to be presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2019 — November 16 -18 in Philadelphia. The Association’s Scientific Sessions is an annual, premier global exchange of the latest advances in cardiovascular science for researchers and clinicians. In addition, the study linking cannabis use disorder to an increased risk of stroke (Oral Presentation 333) will be published in Stroke, a Journal of the American Stroke Association, a division of the American Heart Association.
The American Heart Association does not have a position regarding legalizing cannabis, however, in locations where cannabis is legal, the Association notes that there should be a public health infrastructure in place that integrates the use of cannabis into comprehensive tobacco control efforts such as age restrictions for purchasing, comprehensive smoke- free air laws and other measures.
“As these products become increasingly used across the country, getting clearer, scientifically rigorous data is going to be important as we try to understand the overall health effects of cannabis,” said Robert Harrington, M.D., president of the American Heart Association and the Arthur L. Bloomfield professor of medicine and chairman of the department of medicine at Stanford University in Stanford, California.
Stroke risk may be higher among young cannabis users (Oral Presentation 333)
Young people who used cannabis frequently and also smoked cigarettes or used e-cigarettes were three times more likely to have a stroke compared to non-users.
The study also showed that cannabis users who did not use tobacco products but reported using cannabis for more than 10 days a month were nearly 2.5 times more likely to have a stroke compared to non-users.
The cannabis users were also more likely to be heavy drinkers, current cigarette users and e-cigarette users, which may have also influenced their risk, even though the researchers adjusted for those factors in their analysis.
Participants in the study included more than 43,000 adults aged 18 to 44, of whom nearly 14% reported using cannabis in the last 30 days. Compared with non-users, marijuana users were often younger, non-Hispanic white or black, were less likely to be college graduates and were often physically active.
“Young cannabis users, especially those who use tobacco and have other risk factors for strokes, such as high blood pressure, should understand that they may be raising their risk of having a stroke at a young age,” said lead study author Tarang Parekh, M.B.B.S., M.S., a health policy researcher at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. “Physicians should ask patients if they use cannabis and counsel them about its potential stroke risk as part of regular doctor visits.”
The study was observational and did not examine the biological mechanism connection between stroke and cannabis use, so it identified a potential link, rather than proving cause and effect. The data analyzed was from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS) (2016-17), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey collected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Co-authors are Sahithi Pemmasani, M.B.B.S., and Rupak Desai, M.B.B.S. Author disclosures are in the abstract and manuscript. This study did not receive outside funding.
Cannabis use disorder linked to serious heart rhythm abnormalities (Poster Presentation Mo2053)
People diagnosed with cannabis use disorder had a 50% greater risk of being hospitalized for an arrhythmia, a disorder of the heart’s rhythm, compared to non-users. Cannabis use disorder is characterized by frequent, compulsive use of marijuana, similar to alcoholism.
In this study, young African American men with the disorder, between 15 to 24 years of age, had the greatest risk of being hospitalized for arrhythmia, although cannabis use disorder was more common among white men, 45 to 54 years of age.
While some arrhythmias are benign, others can be life-threatening. “The effects of using cannabis are seen within 15 minutes and last for around three hours. At lower doses, it is linked to a rapid heartbeat. At higher doses, it is linked to a too-slow heartbeat,” said Rikinkumar S. Patel, M.D., M.P.H., resident physician in the department of psychiatry at the Griffin Memorial Hospital in Norman, Oklahoma.
“The risk of cannabis use linked to arrhythmia in young people is a major concern, and physicians should ask patients hospitalized with arrhythmias about their use of cannabis and other substances because they could be triggering their arrhythmias,” said Patel.
“As medical and recreational cannabis is legalized in many states, it is important to know the difference between therapeutic cannabis dosing for medical purposes and the consequences of cannabis abuse. We urgently need additional research to understand these issues,” said Patel. 18
Data for this study was derived from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Nationwide Inpatient Sample (post-legalization period, 2010-2014), and this is the first, large-scale, population-based study to evaluate a link between cannabis use disorder and hospitalization for arrhythmias. Although it does not prove cause and effect, it establishes an important trend.
Co-author is Sowmya Madireddy, M.D. Author disclosures are in the abstract. This study did not receive any external funding.
Statements and conclusions of study authors presented at American Heart Association scientific meetings are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the Association’s policy or position. The Association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. The Association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific Association programs and events. The Association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing the science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations and health insurance providers are available at https://www.heart.org/en/about-us/aha-financial-information.
The American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions is a premier global exchange of the latest advances in cardiovascular science for researchers and clinicians. Scientific Sessions 2019 is November 16-18 at the Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia. More than 12,000 leading physicians, scientists, cardiologists and allied health care professionals from around the world convene at the Scientific Sessions to participate in basic, clinical and population science presentations, discussions and curricula that can shape the future of cardiovascular science and medicine, including prevention and quality improvement. During the three-day meeting, attendees receive exclusive access to over 4,100 original research presentations and can earn Continuing Medical Education (CME), Continuing Education (CE) or Maintenance of Certification (MOC) credits for educational sessions. Engage in the Scientific Sessions conversation on social media via #AHA19.
About the American Heart Association
The American Heart Association is a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives. We are dedicated to ensuring equitable health in all communities. Through collaboration with numerous organizations, and powered by millions of volunteers, we fund innovative research, advocate for the public’s health and share lifesaving resources. The Dallas-based organization has been a leading source of health information for nearly a century. Connect with us on heart.org, Facebook, Twitter or by calling 1-800-AHA-USA1.
For Media Inquiries and AHA Volunteer Expert Perspective:
AHA News Media in Dallas: 214-706-1173
AHA News Media Office, Nov. 16-18, 2019 at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia: 215-418-2450
For Public Inquiries: 1-800-AHA-USA1 (242-8721)
Research Highlights: Young people who reported using cannabis frequently had higher risk of having a stroke, according to a Virginia study. The risk of being hospitalized for arrhythmia was significantly greater among people diagnosed with…
Is cannabis making my heartbeat irregular?
Last year, for a while I smoked cannabis and drank small amounts at the weekends.
I was also a regular smoker.
After smoking cannabis for relaxation for a while, I had a sudden onset of severe symptoms such as a pounding racing heart, feeling of wanting to move my bowels, feeling extremely cold, passing out and not being able to walk.
My heart would go completely out of control, beating around 170 beats per minute. Alcohol had the same effects.
I found this all very distressing. I have given up smoking cannabis and drinking and no longer get all the symptoms, but now get panic attacks.
My doctor says that I have SVT. Can you please tell me more than this. I don’t know what it means, if there is any treatment and how I know if I’ve even got it.
Also, I would like to start to have an occasional drink again. Is this wise?
These sudden episodes of rapid beating of the heart can be very alarming, even though frequently the problem can be remedied and is less threatening to your health than it feels.
Your doctor diagnosed SVT or supraventricular tachycardia. This means a rapid heart rate caused by abnormal activity within the heart’s normal electrical circuit.
The normal heart beat is produced by an electrical impulse that starts in the heart’s pacemaker (called the the sinoatrial node) and spreads along specially modified heart muscle fibres causing the upper chambers (atria) and then the lower chambers (ventricles) to contract.
This pumps the blood through the heart and around the circulatory system.
The electrical impulses occur in a steady rhythm so the heart contracts regularly a certain number of times a minute.
However, when this system is upset, the impulses may come closer together, increasing the heart rate (number of beats per minute) or they may lose some their regularity, changing the heart rhythm.
This can give the sensation of a fast, pounding and possibly irregular heart.
Alcohol is well documented to increase the sensitivity of the sinoatrial node, causing this situation.
Other substances, such as caffeine, can also have this effect. In your case, it is probably that cannabis has also contributed to this increased sensitivity of your node.
The treatment for SVT can be avoiding things that can precipitate attacks, such as alcohol and cannabis, although the condition may occur spontaneously without an obvious cause.
There are medications, such as verapamil or beta blockers (eg propranolol or atenolol) which can also help. If the problem continues, I’d advise you to have a further talk with your GP.
He or she will be able to give you more advice, both on treatments to prevent attacks and on techniques that can be used to stop an attack once it has started.
Last year, for a while I smoked cannabis and drank small amounts at the weekends. I was also a regular smoker. After smoking cannabis for rel…