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cannabis oil non hodgkin lymphoma

Does Cannabis Help Patients With Lymphoma?

Cannabis can be a powerful therapeutic tool. It has helped many people with a number of conditions. Can it aid people with Hodgkin’s lymphoma and give them a better quality of life?

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that not only displays the trademark side effects of other cancers, but also compromises the immune system, making the patient vulnerable to other diseases. When combined with invasive and stressful treatments like chemo or radiation therapy, Hodgkin’s lymphoma has the potential to be a very debilitating disease.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma or Hodgkin’s disease is a disorder of the lymphatic system. There are lymph nodes all over the body, including in the brain, bone marrow, and spleen. You can feel them as little lumps in your groin, armpits, and along the underside of the jaw. If you can feel them in your bone marrow or brain, you are pressing too hard.

Lymphoma affects the way white blood cells called lymphocytes behave. Lymphocytes are critical for immunity and are antagonistic towards viruses and bacteria. Hodgkin’s lymphoma infects the cells responsible for making antibodies.

Antibodies are protein markers that the body uses to identify invading pathogens. When an invader is identified, the immune system goes to work to seek and destroy. The lymphatic system then drains the harmless waste away and the body continues along, oblivious and healthy.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma turns off the body’s seek and destroy system. Cells that would have been targeted and flushed are now able to multiply as they please. This manifests in the body as swollen lymph nodes, usually in the chest and armpits.

The types of symptoms can vary depending on where the lymphoma begins. Internal glands that swell can put pressure on the stomach and gut, inducing nausea. Masses that appear in the chest or armpits will metastasise to the nearest cluster of lymph glands and so on.

The compromised immune system also makes the patient vulnerable to infection, bacterial diseases, and viruses. When your body gets a cold or the flu, the symptoms you experience are your body’s battle with the pathogen flowing in your blood. All thanks to your immune system.

Without an active immune system, a dose of the flu can be devastating.

CANNABIS AND LYMPHOMA

Research into whether cannabis can fight lymphoma directly has yet to be conducted in any clinical sense. However, there are studies that have given good reason for clinical investigation into the direct effectiveness of cannabis on Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

In a 2013 study [1] published in the journal PLOS ONE, it was found that the surface of Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells were covered in cannabinoid receptors. These CB1 receptors imply the potential for cannabinoids to bind to or influence them.

There has been encouraging success in the laboratory using cannabis compounds on other forms of cancer. Four primary mechanisms are responsible for the effectiveness of cannabis on different types of cancer cells.

  1. As an antiproliferative [2] , cannabis has been found to reduce the growth of tumours.
  2. It also interrupts metastasis [3] , which is the process of cancer cells spreading throughout the body.
  3. As an antiangiogenic [4] , cannabis has been found to prevent the growth of blood vessels to feed tumours. Without a food supply, tumours are starved.
  4. Apoptosis [5] is cell suicide. Normal cells are made, perform their function, wear out or become diseased, and are disposed of by the immune system. This process is happening continuously, millions of times a day. Cancerous cells are those that have stopped responding to normal immune triggers that dispose of diseased cells. Compounds in the cannabis plant convince the cancer cells’ own healing system to self-destruct—ironically and eerily similar to what cancer does to normal cells.

CANNABIS AND QUALITY OF LIFE

Whether cannabis can be effective in the direct fight against Hodgkin’s lymphoma remains to be seen. However, it may be able to help the patient in a number [6] of other ways. Appropriate use of marijuana and its extracts can ease the symptoms of lymphoma and improve one’s overall quality of life.

PAIN PAIN GO AWAY

Pain is the most common side effect of chemotherapy and often proves to be the most difficult to manage. A number of chemotherapy drugs can cause long-term problems like neuropathy. Neuropathy is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks the nervous system causing chronic, extensive pain.

In general, medical marijuana patients prefer the magical green herb to other pain control medications. Prescription pain medication can have its own debilitating side effects like intoxication and addiction. A significant amount of distress from pain is caused by anxiety about the pain. The classic high experienced when using cannabis can reduce anxiety and make the pain less psychologically agonising.

GOODBYE QUEASY

The nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy can be a torment. Cannabis is a proven antiemetic. An antiemetic is a substance that relieves vomiting. Medical marijuana patients benefit from the known antiemetics tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Being able to eat and digest is an important part of any recovery process.

Dating back to the seventies, studies [7] confirm the efficacy of cannabis compounds in reducing nausea and vomiting in chemo patients. In the following decades, preclinical trials and reviews backed up these preliminary studies. Medical marijuana has since gained acceptance and a legal status in many countries.

SANE IN THE BRAIN

Battling life-threatening diseases presents challenges in maintaining good mental health. Controlled doses of THC can have similar [8] effects to that of antidepressants. Cannabis, in its many forms, is renowned for bringing smiles to faces and euphoria to minds.

Rapidly absorbed CBD also has a positive [9] effect on mood. While many pharmaceutical antidepressants may take several weeks to balance out in the body, studies performed on rodents suggest a positive effect on mood with just a single dose of CBD.

ZZZZZZZ

Sleep is an indispensable part of anyone’s life, and is especially important when fighting disease or recuperating. The pain from lymphoma and chemotherapy can interfere with healthy sleep. Research has shown that cannabis helps patients fall asleep quicker, then sleep deeper and longer.

It is during deep sleep that the body and brain undergo regenerative [10] and restorative processes. Cannabis encourages deeper sleeps for longer periods. Getting good sleep is crucial to maintaining a healthy lymphatic and immune system. Decreased sleep is linked [11] to poor immune function, which must be avoided at all costs by lymphoma patients.

IT’S CANNABIS NOT CAN’TABIS

Studies will continue to unveil the efficacy of cannabis for treating different kinds of cancer, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Again, whether or not cannabis can directly fight this cancer remains to be proven. Nonetheless, cannabis really shines when it comes to easing the side effects of the cancer itself; equally so when used to relieve the side effects of treatments like radiation and chemotherapy.

Cannabis is a well-regarded therapy for a number of diseases and disorders. Can it help with Hodgkin’s lymphoma?

Cannabis Research for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lymph system, which is part of the body’s immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases. The lymph system is made up of the following lymphocytes: B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and Natural Killer Cells.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can begin in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. Lymphocytes can also be found in the blood and also collect in the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. — National Cancer Institute

Below is a Library of Cannabis Research Study for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

Prospective Analysis of Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis in Large Unselected Population of Patients with Cancer

Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs

Expression of Cannabinoid Receptors Type 1 and type 2 in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Growth Inhibition by Receptor Activation

Cannabis Research Library

Over 1000 studies covering over 130 topics compiled for easy browsing.

Mission Statement: Rebrand Marijuana to Cannabis to facilitate the education of Cannabis (and to have fun)!

Disclaimer: Sativaisticated staff are not medical or legal professionals. All subjective writings are merely opinions.

SATIVAisticated © 2019 Cultivated by Harmon Marketing Co.

Library of Cannabis Research Studies for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma by SATIVAisticated: A collection of scientific research studies that focus on Cannabis, Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoid System and how they might affect Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

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is cbd oil legal in sc

Is CBD Oil South Carolina Legal In 2020? Where To Buy It?

Cannabidiol is a substance that can be found in cannabis. CBD is now a trend in the medical industry because of its therapeutic benefits including relief from anxiety, reduction of some forms of pain, and prevention of seizures. Even if it doesn’t have any psychoactive effects and it has a lot of health benefits the status of Cannabidiol is a complicated one. It varies from place to place. With Cannabidiol establishing itself as an industry of its own and growing vastly in the health and wellness market, it is natural for residents to wonder where one could easily score this compound praised for having many health benefits.

The South USA has been slow to move towards legalizing cannabis, and SC is no exception to that rule. This conservative state has restricted the use and selling of these. Marijuana for medical and recreational purposes is illegal in SC. Possession of this is a criminal offense. First-time offenders can face up to 30 days in jail and a maximum of $565 fine for possession of it.

But for certain patients, low-tetrahydrocannabinol is allowed to treat terminal or chronic illnesses like epilepsy as long as it has a recommendation from a physician licensed by the state.

Like other states in the USA, Cannabidiol stores are popping in many towns and cities inSC. Is it illegal? If yes. What are the limitations? Where can you buy Cannabidiol in SC?

Is CBD Oil Legal in South Carolina?

Yes, CBD is okay to buy and sell in SC but there is a specific limitation in the state that only if these products are derived from hemp plants. The state’s cannabidiol laws are a lot as with the federal law because it centers around whether CBD contains less than 0.3% THC and has been derived from hemp.

There is a distinction between marijuana and industrial hemp. In alignment with the federal law, it considered anything with more than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol to be illegal and anything with less than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol to be hemp. Hence, everything that had been derived from industrial hemp is considered legal.

This also means that cannabis-derived cannabidiol products are considered illegal in the state.

For the summary, these are the guidelines for determining the legal CBD products:

  • It should be from a hemp plant
  • Should have less than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol concentration
  • CBD-derived products should only be prescribed as medication.

If they meet all the above requirements, they can be legally possessed, sold, and consumed in SC. The board also requires people who want to produce Cannabidiol or grow hemp plants to be licensed by the state.

Hemp-derived CBD can now be sold at stores throughout the place. SC hasn’t specified limits on how much CBD you are allowed to buy, consume, or possess. Hence, hemp-derived CBD is somewhat unregulated in this state.

But still, it is illegal to have marijuana for recreational purposes with or without a medical marijuana ID card. Possessing and selling an illegal Cannabidiol such as marijuana has offense penalties that go up to 10 years in prison and up to 10,000USD fine. It is important to note that marijuana is illegal in SC whether it is for medical and recreational purposes.

Cannabidiol that are recommended for epilepsy, seizure disorders, and other health cases are authorized under a separate SC law. The State allows people to use Cannabidiol products as long as they have a recommendation from a licensed physician.

You can legally possess Cannabidiol products if you are:

  • Suffering from Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, Dravet Syndrome, other critical epilepsy.
  • It cannot be treated by other medicines unless Cannabidiol.
  • Have a recommendation from a physician or doctor of osteopathy from SC.

Thinking about buying CBD oil South Carolina but not so sure if it is CBD legal? Read on to discover is CBD legal in South Carolina in 2020.

Is CBD Oil Legal in South Carolina?

Yes! Hemp-derived CBD oil is legal to purchase and sell in South Carolina (SC). As long as the THC content is under 0.3 percent and it is not added to food products, CBD oil is legal in the state.

The question, “is CBD oil legal in South Carolina?” might seem like a simple yes or no question, but there’s so much more to it. Like a lot of achievements, hemp legalization in South Carolina encompasses its fair share of milestones and setbacks. It’s also been pretty recent since hemp cultivation was officially legalized, making it a hot topic of debate and discussion in the area.

The Road to Hemp Legalization in South Carolina

As they say, it’s all about the journey. South Carolina’s journey to CBD legalization consists of legislation and events that have sparked progress and even brought some roadblocks that need more time for development.

2014 – Julian’s Law/S1035/H4803

In 2014, Governor Nikki Haley signed Senate Bill 2015, also known as Julian’s Law. This bill allowed children with a certain debilitating medical condition to be treated with CBD oil if recommended by a physician. The legislation specified that the CBD oil must have a minimum of 98 percent CBD and a THC level of no more than 0.9 percent. It also stipulated that the CBD oil must be obtained from the Medical University of South Carolina.

Julian’s Law also opened up the opportunity for physicians to participate in a statewide medical study of CBD oil for other medical conditions.

2017 – Industrial Hemp Pilot Program/H3559

The state officially decided to heighten its crop diversity by legalizing industrial hemp cultivation in May 2017. In accordance with the 2014 Farm Bill, a pilot program was established to carry this out. This program authorized up to 20 growing permits for the first year and 40 for the second and third year. Each permit holder was allowed to grow up to 20 acres of industrial hemp for research purposes.

The number of permits granted in the years following would be determined by the Department of Agriculture and institutions of higher learning. It would be in the spring of 2018, where the state’s first 20 contingent cultivators would begin sowing hemp seeds. Interest in the program was strong, with 131 applicants during the first year.

2018 – Farm Bill & South Carolina’s Hemp Farming Act

The Farm Bill, signed by President Donald Trump in December 2018, removed hemp from the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), created wider access to growing licenses and allowed financial institutions to securely conduct business with hemp companies.

South Carolina jumped on board with this bill. Governor Henry D. McMaster signed the Hemp Farming Act, which lifted limits on hemp cultivation. It specifically:

Granted eligibility to anyone who previously applied for a grower permit under the previous pilot program to grow hemp in SC, provided they pass a background check.

Removed the cap on cultivated acreage.

Removed pilot program’s requirement that growers receive a letter of intent from an approved college or university.

The state permitted 113 growers to plant hemp across approximately 3,300 acres in 2019. And per the 2018 Farm Bill, as long as the THC content is under 0.3 percent, it is legal.

2019 – SC Regulators Set Boundaries on CBD

On February 20, 2019, the South Carolina Department of Agriculture (SCDA) made a statement that drew a line between what was legal and what wasn’t legal when it came to specific conditions around CBD. SCDA claimed CBD itself is legal but not when it’s added to “any human or animal food products for public sale,”

Derek Underwood, Assistant Commissioner of Consumer Protection, explained that until clinical studies can prove that CBD food items are safe and the FDA approves the research, they’ll remain illegal in the state. As a result, South Carolina CBD shops began halting their CBD food products, sticking to selling their non-food CBD products like tinctures.

Looking Ahead in South Carolina

With the legalization of hemp, SC legislators are now considering the possibilities of its sibling plant, marijuana. In September 2015, the Senate Medical Affairs subcommittee unanimously approved a bill that would create a medical marijuana program, but it did not pass.

The South Carolina Compassionate Care Act was proposed in 2018. If it’s signed into law, it would allow individuals with qualifying medical conditions to use medical marijuana. Specifically, it would provide this group with two ounces of marijuana, or an equivalent derivative, every two weeks. No final decisions have been made yet. It advanced to the SC House and Senate in 2019, but the legislative session concluded before the bill could be debated. The deadline to pass it has been pushed to 2020.

Where Can I Find CBD Oil in South Carolina?

South Carolina residents can get CBD products in brick-and-mortar shops throughout the state and from shops online. There are also smoke shops and food stores that carry CBD oils.

Because of the rapid growth and interest of CBD, hemp festivals, like the Lowcountry Hemp Festival, have been popping up in the state to raise more awareness and educate people on the supplement.

Stay Vigilant and Updated with Hemplucid

So is CBD legal in SC? Yes. Will it always remain this way? Maybe. As the CBD industry continues to change, so can state laws. Wherever you live, it’s always important to keep yourself updated with the latest news around CBD in your state to ensure you’re taking the right steps.

Committed to helping you make educated decisions, Hemplucid stays rooted in transparency and ensures our products stay within legal boundaries. So be sure to check out our Full-Spectrum and zero-THC products. Each of our items come with a QR code that gives you access to their Certificate of Analysis (COA).

Is CBD oil legal in South Carolina? Yes! Learn everything you need to know about the legality of hemp in South Carolina. Be sure to check out our products.

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really dense weed

How To Differentiate Good From Bad Quality Marijuana Buds

Many think they can tell the difference between good and bad-quality bud just by giving it a once-over, but there are certain nuances people don’t consider. In this guide, we’ll walk you through each distinction, and offer some key tips on how to grow premium-quality cannabis buds.

How to tell the difference between good and bad cannabis buds.

Contents:

It probably didn’t take long after you started smoking weed to realise the differences between cannabis buds. Despite how everyone claims their weed is top-notch, you’ve probably noticed when the flower just isn’t up to par. In contrast, when you’re holding quality cannabis, you know it right then and there.

To ensure you only buy the best buds, learning the differences between top-shelf fire from rugged brick weed is vital. You don’t need to be a connoisseur either, as the differentiating traits can be seen and smelled with no assistance. Learning the differences will help you browse the shelves, sure, but it’ll especially help you judge the plants in your own garden. That, in turn, will help you make any necessary adjustments.

Types of Cannabis Buds

Cannabis flowers can be categorised into various quality spectrums. You could be talking about stickiness, terpene profile, taste, texture, or an assortment of other factors. To keep things simple, we’ve narrowed things down to three basic categories: low, medium, and premium-quality bud.

Low-Quality

Low-quality cannabis has a sorry look to it, mostly because it travels long distances after being stuffed into small packages. Known rightly as “brick weed”, these buds often arrive at their destination as dense cubes.

Rarely grown for quality or with much care at all, the producers associated with this level of cannabis are purely profit-driven. Often a black market product, low-quality cannabis typically stems from south of both the US border and the European continent.

Of course, some home growers with the intention to sell may also accidentally produce cannabis of similar quality. Novice growers will often mess up during the process and leave themselves with dry, unremarkable buds.

The key signs of low-quality cannabis include:

Medium-Quality

Domestic growers all over the world mostly produce buds that fall into this category. These flowers are set apart from poor-quality cannabis thanks to their improved colouration, heightened scents, and overt flavours.

Most growers manage to dial in their nutrients, watering schedule, and environmental variables enough to produce cannabis of this quality. The most important factor, though, is putting pride and effort into their work.

If you’re looking for medium-quality bud, or simply trying to dodge the bad stuff, look for these traits:

Premium-Quality

High-grade. Top-shelf. Fire.

Premium-quality bud goes by many names, yet they all describe its immense flavour and mind-shattering effects. These buds are hard to come by outside of big cities and weed-growing areas. Generally, they’re the products of skilled farmers and master breeders in hotspots like Northern California, Spain, and the Netherlands.

You’ll find these nugget-like buds encased in jars on the shelves of reputable dispensaries and highly-rated coffeeshops. If you’re looking for the best buds money can buy, keep an eye out for the following:

How to Differentiate Good Buds From the Bad: A Guide

We hope the above generalisations make it easier to distinguish the quality of a given bud, but it can get a bit more complicated. Below, we’ll get into the nitty-gritty and inspect cannabis flowers a little closer.

Aroma

As we discussed before, aromatic molecules known as terpenes are responsible for said signature scent. Despite the similar undertone, though, most strains feature unique smells thanks to different concentrations of terpenes.

You’re probably familiar with the small, shiny structures on the surface of cannabis buds and sugar leaves. These mushroom-shaped glands—trichomes—pump out terpenes during the flowering stage.

You’ll know you’re dealing with good-quality weed when the olfactory wave of terpenes hits straight after opening your stash. While a pleasing scent and cannabis quality aren’t unconditionally connected, the former is a likely indication of the latter. Hints of flowers, fuel, earth, spices, sugar, fruit, citrus, and berries are among the most common aromas.

The quality of a strain’s terpene profile depends on several variables:

  • Genetics: Some strains are genetically equipped to pump out more aromatic terpenes than others, mostly due to selective breeding practices.
  • Drying and curing: Genetics only achieve so much. Correctly drying, curing, and storing cannabis will preserve the terpene profile and make for better-tasting buds.
  • The right nutrients: During the flowering stage, cannabis plants have a higher demand for potassium and phosphorus and less of a need for nitrogen. Get this balance right, and you’ll produce some fantastic-smelling flowers.
  • Living soil: A strong microbial population will help plants access all of the nutrients they need to develop an optimal terpene profile.
  • Companion planting: Many growers claim planting basil in close proximity to cannabis helps improve its smell.

Quick Growing Tip: Boosting terpenes will improve the overall smell and flavour of your plants. Select strains such as Lemon Shining Silver Haze and Haze Berry to start with a genetic advantage.

Colour

Although you can’t judge a book by its cover, you can definitely judge cannabis buds by their appearance. There are many factors that indicate quality to a trained eye, and colour is one of the most important.

Of course, cannabis flowers come in an array of different hues of purple, orange, green, and red. It isn’t so much the colour that gives away quality, but more so the vibrancy. See, healthy and well-grown cannabis flowers have a bright and shiny look to them.

Such vibrancy signals good genetics, solid growing techniques, and adequate curing and storage. In contrast, poor-quality cannabis appears matte, dull, and pallid. These buds are often dark green to brown, pale, and ultimately unappealing.

Quick Growing Tip: Flushing plants at the right moment will prevent excess nutrients from accumulating in flowers and eliminate nutrient burn.

Additional Tip: Play around with genetics and temperature to grow purple weed! Start with genetics like Purple Queen to increase your chances of success.

Orange/Brown Pistils

Upon looking closely at the surface of cannabis flowers, you’ll come across a miniature landscape—valleys, peaks, and all—made up of different glands, organs, and structures. Among the scenery, the pistils protrude the most.

These hair-like tendrils are the sex organ of the female cannabis flower, serving as the receiver of male pollen. Once this genetic dust makes contact, the flower becomes fertile and swiftly goes to seed.

Away from their biological role, pistils serve as useful progress markers. During the early flowering stage, these reproductive parts boast a brilliant whiteness. As the weeks go by, their appearance turns to a solid dark orange.

You should always look for deep orange pistils when eyeing up buds. Harvest should ideally take place when at least 70% of the hairs turn this colour. This indicates the buds are ripe, mature, and ready for snipping. Flowers with mostly white pistils signal immature cannabis. Left a while longer, these flowers will mature and unleash a complete cannabinoid and terpene profile.

Quick Growing Tip: Harvest at the right moment, ensuring pistils are the right colour at the right time. You’ll need to be patient when cultivating strains like Amnesia Haze, as they have a slightly longer flowering time.

Crystals/Resin

Trichomes are the most abundant feature on the surface of good-quality flowers. To the naked eye, they appear as a fine layer of crystals that shimmer under torchlight or the flame of a lighter.

These mushroom-shaped structures feature a bulbous head atop a narrow stalk. In this head, specialised cells tasked with resin production work tirelessly during the flowering phase. The resin exudes downward and gradually covers the majority of the surface of the flower. This resin—and its active phytochemicals—help guard buds against insect attacks and temperature extremes.

The substance contains a complex array of molecules. Those of interest to us include cannabinoids such as THC and CBD, along with terpenes like myrcene, pinene, and limonene. The more trichomes a flower possesses, the more resin it will produce. The more resin coating the surface of a bud, the more cannabinoids and terpenes sit ready to be combusted, vaporized, or chewed and swallowed.

You’ll be able to tell the trichome and resin content of a bud just by looking at it and holding it. Note how it glitters, the stickiness, and consider the resistance generated as you peel your fingertips from the flower.

Quick Growing Tip: Utilise environmental factors to boost trichome production. Strains such as ICE are genetically wired to develop high quantities of trichomes.

Dense/Fluffy

How buds feel in the hand says a lot about their quality. Every grower hopes for dense and heavy buds at the end of the growing season. These flowers simply hold more mass, look much healthier, and smoke smoother.

Grinding up dense cannabis flowers seems to almost double their size. Even a small chunk of a compact flower can grind down to fill a good-sized joint. In contrast, fluffy buds yield disappointment and less plant matter. These airy flowers are often the result of suboptimal growing conditions, a lack of light, or nutrient deficiency.

Fluffy buds don’t only look less appetising, but you’ll need to use more of your harvest every time you roll a blunt or hit a bowl. Dense buds will offer some resistance and spring back to their original shape. Airy buds will almost collapse in on themselves, and feel much more feeble to the touch.

Quick Tip: Sativa and indica flowers tend to look different; know what to look for when browsing.

Growing Tip: Utilise powerful lights to grow dense and compact flowers.

Seeds

The presence of seeds is never a sign of quality flowers. The very word sinsemilla—a name given to weed of exceptional quality—refers to flowers devoid of seeds.

Remember those protruding pistils we covered earlier? When pollen from a male plant lands on the tendrils, it starts a process of changing the biochemical activity of the cannabis flower. The plant diverts its energy and efforts away from producing sticky resin and towards making seeds instead.

Flowers with seeds don’t reach peak potency and maturity because the resources are swallowed up by reproductive efforts instead. Cannabis seeds also make flowers heavier, meaning you end up paying more for less flower. If you buy one gram of weed and find 200mg of seeds nested within, you’ve wasted money. That might not seem like much, but consider that across 50–100 purchases, and that’s a lot of lost bud.

Unnoticed seeds can also ruin a smoke session. Seeds pop when the flame of the joint hits them, disturbing your zen and sending harsh smoke into your lungs.

Quick Growing Tip: Learn how to avoid pollination to keep seeds out of your weed.

Stems

Smoking stems either boils down to an accident or an act of desperation. Stems contain minuscule levels of cannabinoids and produce a harsh smoke. However, the presence of stems in your bag doesn’t necessarily indicate bad weed.

Rather, it shows a rushed preparation process. Plus, you paid for that extra weight! When browsing your local dispensary or coffeeshop, avoid buds with excess stems. Alternatively, simply ask the budtender to trim them off before you buy them.

Quick Tip: They’re not as valuable as buds, but you can use stems to make a variety of homemade products, from hash to topicals.

Well-Trimmed vs Leafy

Trimming weed refers to removing the sugar leaves—small leaves that grow out of and around cannabis flowers. The presence of sugar leaves doesn’t automatically render cannabis poor-quality, but it can make a big difference.

Firstly, well-manicured buds simply look great. Trimming gives the bud a nice nugget-like appearance, and the aesthetic is a near-universal trait of premium-quality flowers.

Secondly, excess sugar leaves will impact the weight of the flower. You want to be paying for buds, not leaves. Finally, the presence of sugar leaves can cause issues during the curing process. Small pockets of moisture can build up, creating a breeding ground for pathogens and impacting the taste of the weed.

Quick Growing Tip: You can trim your weed either before or after drying it.

Even between cannabis buds of the same strain, quality varies. Click to learn how to tell the difference between low, medium, and premium-quality buds.

Make cannabis buds harder and more dense with one simple operation

A week or six ago, we asked Doc Green, to test a technique on one of his cannabis plants that would make the buds thicker, more compact and heavier. Although at first it sounded incredible, the simple intervention did really produce spectacular results.

It seemed too good to be true, with a single action making it possible to harvest more weed. That is why we asked Dr. Green to test the technique. He applied the trick to one of his Night Queens and was positively surprised by the extreme amount of trichomes that the plant subsequently produced.

Experiment

In the case of Dr. Green, the buds did not grow significantly thicker, but they did produce more resin. The buds on the plant in question are also considerably more dense than those of the other plants. Below you see on the left a bud that is not treated, and on the right one of the buds on which Dr. Green did apply the technique, the difference can be clearly seen. The bud on the right seems more white and the leaves also contain much more trichomes in the treated plant.

Bud Swelling

The technique with which Dr. Green experimented is called Bud Swelling, it’s surprisingly simple and goes as follows: Once the cannabis plants get their first real bud around the third week of the flowering phase , you start with it. Don’t be scared but you should remove the upper part of the bud. It may seem scary, but in the end you just cut away a very small piece, about 3 millimetres. Below you can see how Dr. Green did it.

Next, according to this movie it is the intention that you repeat this every 10 to 14 days. You probably can also use one treatment because according to other manuals one treatment is sufficient. Doctor Green is enthusiastic and will apply it more often.

Bud Swelling in the picture

Below you can see three videos in which the technique is used. In the first video the technique is demonstrated and in the other two you see the surprising result. The treated buds have clearly become much thicker by cutting the buds. As you can see, it does not only work for indoor cannabis plants, but also for outdoor cannabis. Take advantage of it!

Make cannabis buds harder and more dense with one simple operation A week or six ago, we asked Doc Green, to test a technique on one of his cannabis plants that would make the buds thicker, more

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hemp seeds for hair growth

The secret to beautiful hair & skin: Hemp seed oil

Feel beautiful from head to toe with this wonder oil

It seems there’s no limit to the strange and wonderful ingredients currently hitting the beauty shelves recently, from seahorse plankton to dragons’ blood, we’ve seen it all. But what is hemp seed oil, where does it come from and what are the benefits?

What is hemp seed oil?

Hemp seed oil has been extracted from hemp seeds, unlike CBD which is extracted from the flowers and leaves. The oil is packed with essential fatty acids omega-3, -6 and -9 – all important for naturally moisturising and restoring healthy hair and skin.

It’s also completely renewable (the plant grows in just 4 months and doesn’t need any pesticides, herbicides or fertilisers), the plant breathes in four times more CO2 than trees and requires very little water to grow. Once harvested, its stalk, leaves, flowers, and, of course, it’s seeds, are all used to form beauty products, food and even clothing – wow.

Reduce hair loss and breakage

The high content of fatty acids stimulates healthy hair growth, as well as Vitamin A, which can help to reduce hair loss and breakage. The oil not only contains the three omegas, its packed with vitamins D, E and magnesium which help stimulate new hair growth. It can also help blood circulation which also results in stronger, healthier and longer hair. The wonder oil can help to soothe itchiness and dryness on the scalp and deter dandruff from forming.

Handpicked content: Hair: Get the gloss

Moisturise your skin

The oil will nourish and restore dry skin and the fatty acids within are believed to affect immune responses in the body which may help to soothe the effects of some skin conditions such as eczema, acne and psoriasis.

It’s completely non-comedogenic (meaning it won’t clog your pores), non-greasy and easily absorbed – sign me up!

Halt premature aging

Its properties can help to improve skin renewal and elasticity as well as help to slow down cellular skin aging.

Advice is for information only and should not replace medical care. Please check with your GP before trying any remedies.

The secret to beautiful hair & skin: Hemp seed oil Feel beautiful from head to toe with this wonder oil It seems there’s no limit to the strange and wonderful ingredients currently hitting

Hemp Seed Oil for Hair

Hemp is a member of the Cannabis sativa species of plant. You may have heard this plant referred to as marijuana, but this is really a different variety of Cannabis sativa.

Hemp seed oil is a clear green oil made by cold-pressing hemp seeds. It’s different from cannabidiol (CBD), which is an extract produced from hemp flowers and leaves.

Hemp seed oil typically doesn’t contain the chemical tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which provides the high associated with marijuana use.

Hemp seed oil is said to have many health benefits, among them that it protects hair from damage. Read on to find out more.

There isn’t much clinical research on the benefits of using hemp seed oil on your hair. Advocates of the practice suggest that research on other similar oils that benefit hair may also apply to hemp seed oil.

For example, according to a 2015 research article , certain oils — such as coconut oil — can play a role in protecting hair from damage by:

  • preventing too much water from being absorbed by hair
  • helping to prevent the penetration of certain substances into hair follicles
  • prevent hair breakage by enhancing lubrication of the shaft.
  • prevent hair breakage by reducing the combing force of wet hair

Some believe these may also apply to hemp seed oil.

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are considered to be good for hair when taken as an oral supplement. Hemp seed oil has plenty of both.

For example, a 2015 study found improvement in the hair diameter and hair density of participants who took omega-3 and omega-6 oral supplements over the course of six months.

Researchers on the study also discovered that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in combination with antioxidants prevented hair loss in participants who took them.

Hemp seed oil has 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids. It also contains smaller amounts of three other polyunsaturated fatty acids: oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid.

A tablespoon of hemp seed oil contains 14 grams of fat, 1.5 grams of saturated fat, and 12.5 grams of polyunsaturated fat.

Hemp seed oil also includes:

  • antioxidants, such as vitamin E
  • carotene
  • phytosterols
  • phospholipids
  • chlorophyll

Along with modest amounts of iron and zinc, hemp seed oil also contains a number of minerals, including:

  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • sulfur
  • potassium
  • phosphorus

Hemp and marijuana are varieties of the same plant. Advocates of hemp seed oil for hair claim that it can moisturize and strengthen hair, as well as stimulate hair growth. We'll discuss the possible benefits of hemp seed oil for hair here.

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earthly body hemp seed lotion

Earthly Body Hemp Seed Hand & Body Lotion

You Earn 18 Points on this item

  • NHC Guarantee
  • 45-Day Return Policy

Product Details

  • Brand: Earthly Body
  • Product Code: hemp-seed-hand-body-lotion-ERB-nag-champa-16-oz
  • Quantity per Container: 16 Oz

Nontoxic Lotion for Dry Skin

Earthly Body offers a hemp-based skin care product called Hemp Seed Hand & Body Lotion that is made with natural oils to leave skin smooth, radiant and healthy-looking.

Using natural body care products is so important today. With more publicity about the synthetic chemicals in most commercial lotions, consumers have more knowledge about what they are putting on (and into) their skin. Hemp seed oil is a great alternative to the common toxic ingredients. It is all-natural, full of nutrients – especially essential fatty acids – and quite moisturizing. Just what you need for healthy aging and skin support.

Product Information

  • A non-greasy, fast-absorbing formula
  • Seeks to provide hydration for dry skin
  • Seeks to support skin elasticity and flexibility
  • No animal testing
  • Made in the USA
  • 100% vegan
  • 16 fl. oz. (473ml)

This lotion also contains argan oil, which delivers essential fatty acids and vitamin E to nourish and moisturize your skin naturally. It is free of parabens, phthalate, THC and gluten.

If you’re looking for a natural skin care product that may support healthy aging and smooth glowing skin, consider Earthly Body’s Hemp Seed Hand & Body Lotion.

Nutrition Facts

Ingredients:
Aqua, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Glycerin, Cetyl Alcohol, Stearic Acid, Cyclopentasiloxane, Glyceryl Stearate, Parfum, PEG-100 Stearate, Dimethicone Carthamus Tinctorious Oil, Ethylhexylglycerin, Sodium Hydroxide, Polyacrylic Acid, Cannabis Sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil, Argania Spinosa Kernel Oil, Phenoxyethanol.

Earthly Body Hemp Seed Hand & Body Lotion You Earn 18 Points on this item NHC Guarantee 45-Day Return Policy Product Details Brand: Earthly Body

HOW HEMP BENEFITS YOU AND THE PLANET

Throughout history hemp seed oil has been used as a soothing restorative to dry, damaged skin. The replenishing nutrients of hemp seed oil are able to penetrate deep into skin cells – providing natural emollients and a lasting barrier to moisture loss – increasing the skin’s natural capacity for moisture retention.

Hemp is a sustainable wonder crop. It can grow in a variety of climates and soil types, the crops grow close to one another so they take up less space and the hemp plant grows without the use of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and thrives on less water than most crops. This makes it the environment’s best friend and a natural way to clean up soil pollution.

Earthly Body offers customers nature-based personal care products infused with CBD Oil, Hemp Oil, & other Essential Oils since 1996. Shop Now!

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flow cbd gel

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Fairwinds – Flow CBD Gel

DISCLAIMER: Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than what is shown on our website. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer.

Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. Always seek the guidance of your doctor or other qualified health professional with any questions you may have regarding your health or a medical condition. Never disregard the advice of a medical professional, or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this Website. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease.

Flow CBD Gel by Fairwinds – The FLOW CBD Deep Tissue and Joint Gel is a powerful topical formula designed to penetrate the skin extremely fast. Research indicates that our formula may deliver cannabidiol into an effected area within 5 minutes, as opposed to 40 min as seen with conventional oil or water-based topicals. An effective blend of botanical extracts and cannabis in a fast penetrating

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buy synthetic cannabis online shop

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Your Home to Buy Spice Online, Legal High Products & Synthetic Marijuana

Tired of getting the runaround from online shops that sell synthetic marijuana, but make you wait weeks for your legal highs delivery?

You deserve a secure, discreet, efficient place to buy spice online, legal high products (i.e. legal cannabis alternatives and legal high e-liquid), and other research chemicals in Europe.

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Whether you want to order c-liquid or buy synthetic weed online in bulk, as one of Europe’s leading stockists and suppliers of top quality herbal incense and vape liquids, we are dedicated to getting you the products you need in a fast and low-key manner.

Shop Legal Highs in Europe at Flight AMS

Your convenience and online shopping experience is important to us. Easily navigate our site to buy spice online, legal high products, and synthetic marijuana.

It gets even better.

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Changes in the research chemical industry are happening at an accelerated rate. As such, we are committed to bringing you the latest news in the European research chemicals, cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), and legal high industries. Check out our blog to stay updated!

Find the Synthetic Cannabis or Vape Liquid You Want

Spice. K2. Joker. Diablo. Mad Hatter. CBD Vape. C-Liquid. Scooby Snax.

No matter which legal cannabis alternative you are looking for, At Flight AMS you’ll find all your faves and discover new legal highs you’ve never even heard of that’ll blow your socks off.

Join the wholesalers and happy customers around the world that take advantage of our low prices on a wide range of quality products.

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Every package is shipped the day you order and it arrives direct to you, discreetly vacuumed packed and sealed and in top condition. Visit our Shipping page to learn more.

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Do you need any additional information on the products we sell? Have questions about overnight post? No matter what it is you need help with, contact the Flight AMS customer service team who will be happy to help you.

Want to learn about where to buy spice online, legal high e-liquid, synthetic weed and more? Flight AMS is Europe's source for herbal incense delivery.

Synthetic Cannabinoids (Synthetic Marijuana, Spice, K2)

Common Street Names: K2, Spice, AK47, Incense, Fake Weed, Yucatan Fire, Genie, Skunk, Moon Rocks, Zohai, Black Mamba

What is synthetic marijuana (synthetic cannabinoids, K2 or Spice)?

Synthetic cannabinoids, also known commonly by the name of “Spice” or “K2”, first became available in the U.S. in the mid-2000’s. These synthetic products are designer drugs in which incense or other leafy materials are sprayed with lab-synthesized liquid chemicals to mimic (copy) the effect of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in the naturally grown cannabis sativa plant.

Synthetic cannabinoids are sometimes incorrectly called “synthetic marijuana” (or “fake weed”), and they are often promoted as safe or legal substitutes to natural marijuana. There is no actual marijuana plant in synthetic cannabinoids; however, the action of the chemicals still take affect on the cannabinoid (THC) receptors in the brain. Synthetic cannabinoids can produce very different actions from smoking natural marijuana. The effects can be much more intense, unpleasant and sometimes dangerous compared to naturally-grown marijuana.

Is synthetic cannabinoids (“synthetic marijuana”) still available in stores?

Spice or K2 has been marketed as an incense in colorful three ounce pouches or vials and labeled “not for human consumption”. Spice or K2 became increasingly popular with high school students and young adults in the mid-2000’s because it was legal and easily obtainable from convenience stores, smoke shops, and online. However, in July 2012 a national ban was enacted against the sale of synthetic cannabinoids in the U.S. 1 Local and state laws also regulate synthetic cannabinoids. While synthetic cannabinoids are illegal in the U.S., the product may still be found sold illegally on the streets.

Popular belief is that “Spice” or “K2” is safe, non-toxic, and results in a psychoactive (mind-altering) effect similar to regular marijuana. However, case reports and surveys have identified serious toxicities that occur with use of synthetic cannabinoids, and some users have required emergency room treatment. The chemicals synthesized for the production of synthetic cannabinoids can be more potent than natural THC found in natural marijuana, and may have more dangerous side effects. Little is known of the pharmacological profile of the chemicals or their by-products.

How are synthetic cannabinoids used?

Synthetic cannabinoids are ingested in a similar manner to marijuana, either smoked alone in a joint or other device, such as a pipe or a bong, or rolled into a joint with tobacco or natural marijuana. This product may also be baked into foods, such as brownies, or made into tea.

Synthetic cannabinoid users report experiences similar to those produced by natural marijuana — elevated mood, relaxation, and altered perception. Often, the effects can be stronger than those of natural marijuana due to the synthesized chemicals. Some users report psychotic effects like extreme anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations. 1 Emergency department visits due to the effects of synthetic cannabinoid ingestion have been reported.

What chemicals are in Spice or K2?

The cannabinoid compounds found in these synthetic agents act on the same cell receptors as those affected by the THC in natural marijuana. Identified compounds include 2 :

  • HU-210
  • CP 47,497 and homologues
  • JWH-018
  • JWH-073
  • JWH-398
  • JWH-250
  • oleamide

Some of the synthesized compounds in “fake pot” bind much more strongly to THC receptors than regular marijuana, which can lead to more powerful, unpredictable or dangerous effects. Synthesized compounds have been noted to be 100 times more potent than the average THC found in marijuana. The stronger binding of the synthetic chemicals to the THC receptor sites in the brain may lead to the extreme anxiety and paranoia that have been reported in some users.

In addition, as with many illicit designer drugs, the chemical composition may be unknown and some products may be combined with other toxic chemicals. In 2018, reports surfaced of synthetic cannabinoids being laced with fentanyl in Connecticut, as reported by NPR.

The chemicals used in these products have a high potential for abuse and no medical benefit. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has designated many active chemicals found most frequently in synthetic cannabinoids as Schedule I controlled substances, the most restrictive schedule, making it illegal to sell, buy, or possess them. Manufacturers attempt to evade these legal restrictions by substituting different chemicals in their mixtures, while the DEA continues to monitor and update the list of banned cannabinoid derivatives. 1

Are synthetic cannabinoids (synthetic marijuana) dangerous?

Yes, synthetic cannabinoids can be dangerous, as described in several case reports and alerts from U.S. health care authorities. Complications due to synthetic pot use may include:

  • high blood pressure
  • nausea and vomiting
  • anxiety or agitation
  • seizures
  • rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
  • excessive sweating
  • confusion
  • hallucinations

Spice and K2 can also raise blood pressure and cause reduced blood supply to the heart (myocardial ischemia), and in a few cases it has been associated with heart attacks. 1

Published case reports in Pediatrics describe three teenagers who were hospitalized after using synthetic cannabinoids. These patients demonstrated varying degrees of catatonia (an inability to respond to verbal or physical stimulation, including pain) an elevated heart rate, agitation, anxiety, dizziness, headaches, excessive sweating, slowed speech, and confusion. Two of the patients recovered to normal function in three to four hours, while the third patient was kept in hospital overnight before being released. 3,4

Synthetic cannabinoids and bleeding risk

In mid-March 2018, the Illinois Department of Heath reported several cases of severe bleeding in people who had used synthetic cannabinoids, such as Spice or K2, contaminated with blood thinners. Subsequently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) posted an Outbreak Alert warning of life-threatening vitamin K-dependent antagonist bleeding disorders linked with synthetic cannabinoid use in Illinois and other states. Four deaths due to severe bleeding were reported in Illinois. 5

Laboratory testing confirmed that patients were exposed to brodifacoum (an anticoagulant, or blood thinner in rat poison) due to contaminated synthetic cannabinoids. 6 In reports since this time, other anticoagulants have been identified in these synthetic products. 5 Symptoms that can be expected with ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids laced with anticoagulant rat poison or other blood thinners can include:

  • bruising
  • excessive bleeding
  • nosebleeds
  • bleeding gums
  • coughing up or vomiting blood
  • pink or red urine due to blood in urine
  • dark-colored stools or blood in stools
  • excessively heavy menstrual bleeding
  • back or stomach pain
  • confusion
  • fainting
  • loss of consciousness

If you have consumed synthetic marijuana and have signs or symptoms of bleeding, call 911 or go to an emergency room immediately, tell the doctor you have smoked synthetic marijuana and that you are bleeding, or may be bleeding. Laboratory tests can determine the extent of your anticoagulation and long-term vitamin K (phytonadione) treatment may be started to reverse the effects of the blood thinner. 7,8 This is a serious and life-threatening situation. Do not delay treatment.

There have been reports that Spice or K2 may be laced with other illicit substances, such as fentanyl, which can rapidly lead to respiratory depression and death. Synthetic cannabinoids are created illegally, are not regulated by any authority and may be contaminated with any number of poisonous substances.

Long-term effects of synthetic cannabinoid use

The long-term effects of synthetic cannabinoids on reproduction, cancer development, memory or addiction potential are not known. One report suggests some of these products may contain heavy metal residues that may be harmful to health. Other reports claim synthetic marijuana can be addicting — users who have had even unpleasant experiences crave additional drug. Regular users may experience withdrawal symptoms.

Extent of synthetic marijuana use in teens

In the 2018 Monitoring the Future Survey, a survey from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) on adolescent drug use, past year use of synthetic marijuana use was second only to use of natural marijuana in high school seniors. However, in general, rates of Spice or K2 use have remained low among teens in the U.S.

  • Roughly 36% of U.S. high school seniors reported past year use of natural marijuana, while 3.5% reported use of synthetic cannabinoids.
  • In fact, rates of synthetic marijuana use have been declining since 2012 when it was at its highest; in 2012, 11.3% of high school seniors reported use of Spice or K2.
  • These numbers are not surprising considering the increased legal status of recreation marijuana in the U.S., and the continued illegal classification of synthetic cannabinoids.

Do drug tests screen for Spice or K2?

While the chemicals sprayed on plant material to produce Spice or K2 were previously not easily detectable in standard drug tests, that is changing and some drug tests now include assays to identify the common compounds found in synthetic marijuana. 1

Cannabimimetics (for example, “Spice” or “K2” containing JWH018, JWH073, HU-210, and other analogs) are prohibited in certain competitive sports and can be found on the World Anti-Doping List. Laboratory tests are becoming increasingly common for the detection of Spice and K2 in urine drug screens. Like marijuana, the active ingredients in Spice and K2 have a long half-life and can be stored in the body for extended periods of time. 8

Related:

  • Drug Testing FAQs
  • Marijuana Overview
  • Illicit Drug Use and Alcohol Interactions

See Also

  • Bath Salts
  • Cannabis
  • Cocaine
  • Devil’s Breath
  • Ecstasy
  • Fentanyl (Abuse)
  • GHB
  • Gray Death
  • Hashish (Hash)
  • Heroin
  • Ketamine
  • Kratom
  • Krokodil
  • LSD
  • Marijuana
  • MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly)
  • Mescaline (Peyote)
  • Opium
  • PCP (Phencyclidine)
  • Psilocybin (Magic Mushrooms)
  • Quaaludes
  • Rohypnol
  • Speed (methamphetamine)
  • TCP (Tenocyclidine)
  • U-47700 (Pink)

Sources

  1. DrugFacts: Spice (Synthetic Marijuana). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): Updated May 2012. Accessed June 13, 2019. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/synthetic-cannabinoids-k2spice
  2. Understanding the ‘Spice’ Phenomenon. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Accessed June 13, 2019 at http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_80086_EN_Spice%20Thematic%20paper%20—%20final%20version.pdf
  3. Cohen J, Morrison S., Greenberg J., et al. Clinical Presentation of Intoxication Due to Synthetic Cannabinoids. Pediatrics. 2012:129(4), e1064-e1067.

Haiken M. “Spice” and “K2” vs. “Bath Salts”: The Other Designer Drug Scare. Forbes. June 2012.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak Alert: Potential Life-Threatening Vitamin K-Dependent Antagonist Coagulopathy Associated With Synthetic Cannabinoids Use. April 5, 2018.

Rat Poison in Synthetic Pot Can Kill Users: Report. Sept. 26, 2018. Drugs.com Consumer News. Accessed June 13, 2019 at https://www.drugs.com/news/rat-poison-synthetic-pot-can-kill-users-report-77329.html

  • Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. “American teens more cautious about using synthetic drugs.” University of Michigan News Service: Ann Arbor, MI. Accessed Nov. 13, 2016 at http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pressreleases/13drugpr.pdf
  • Further information

    Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

    Synthetic cannabinoid (often called synthetic marijuana) is a man-made drug of lab-synthesized chemicals sprayed on to leafy material to mimic the effect of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient found naturally in marijuana (cannabis).